The phone conversation came amid reports that some opposition forces have attempted a coup in the country.
On Wednesday, the head of Venezuela’s National Assembly Juan Guaido declared himself the president of the country amid anti-government protests.
On the same day, US President Donald Trump announced the US believes Guaido is the country’s legitimate president.
Turkey has expressed support for Maduro, with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan telling him to “stand tall” in the face of calls to step down.
Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro on Wednesday said he will hamper relations with Washington, giving US diplomats 72 hours to leave the country.