In a statement, Khatibzadeh described the assassination attempt as a move made by the enemies of Afghanistan’s peace and stability given the imminence of intra-Afghan negotiations.
The roadside bomb in Kabul targeted Afghan First Vice President Amrullah Saleh on Wednesday morning, his spokesman said, but he escaped the attack unharmed.
Initially, Interior Ministry spokesman Tariq Arian said at least two civilians died but the death toll later rose to 10. The ministry said at least 15 people were wounded.
The Taliban, who have pledged not to launch attacks in urban areas under a deal with the United States, denied responsibility.
In a video posted on Facebook soon after the explosion, Saleh, with bandages on his left hand, said he had been travelling to his office when his convoy was attacked.
Saleh, a former intelligence chief and an outspoken Taliban critic, has survived several assassination attempts, including one on his office last year ahead of presidential elections that killed 20 people.
There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the bombing, which comes just before long-awaited peace talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban in Qatar’s capital, Doha.